Thursday, April 7, 2016

Bell-Jeff 10th Grade History Lecture Notes 4/8/16

Clash of Armor
Kursk and the Battle of the Bulge

“War is the locomotive of History.”Leo Tolstoy

I. Introduction

     A. The tank was not a new concept.  Leonardo Da Vinci presented his design for an “armored car”  (tank) in 1487, however it was not until the First World War that a practical vehicle, code named ‘Tank’ would enter the battlefield as a viable weapon.
     B. After the war, many military theorists saw the potential for the tank to change the nature of the battlefield. (Liddell Hart, Anon Chaffe, George Patton)

     C. During the Battle of France, 1940, the French & British had bigger tanks, better tanks and more tanks than did the Germans, however…
     Unlike the Allies, the Germans knew how to use the tank to best effect.

That said, the Germans realized they too needed a heavy tank and began a design program that resulted in the Mark VI Tiger I.  The Tiger entered active service in late 1942.

     D.  German invasion of the Soviet Union (June 22, 1941) did not proceed as planned.  The Soviets had twice as many tanks as the Germans had estimated and, more importantly in the T34, a tank design far more advanced than anything the Germans possessed.

The nasty surprise presented by the T34 spurred the Germans to reevaluate their own design concepts.  The Army wanted an exact copy of the T34, but German engineers thought they could improve on the Soviet design.  The result was the Mark V Panther.

Soviet T34/76 – a nasty surprise for the Germans in 1941.

German Mark V ausf.G Panther, December 1944 – Arguably the best tank of WWII.

German Mark VI Tiger I, armed with the 88mm main gun, it was the most feared tank on the battlefield, inspiring ‘Tiger Terror’ on both the Eastern and Western Fronts.

II. Kursk -- July 1943

“Is it really necessary to attack Kursk, and indeed in the east this year at all? Do you think anyone even knows where Kursk is? The entire world doesn't care if we capture Kursk or not. What is the reason that is forcing us to attack this year on Kursk, or even more, on the Eastern Front?” -- General Heinz Guderian, Panzer Leader ©1950

A.   Objectives – Why Attack Kursk?
1. Destroy (kill or capture) large concentration of Soviet Forces in and around the town of Kursk.  (The Kursk Bulge)
2. Regain control of the war in the East.
         a. Shorter defensive lines thus freeing up troops for redeployment to Italy      
         b. Follow on attacks were planed to finally capture Leningrad and then Moscow
3. Restore the faith of Germany’s allies who were now considering the possibility that Germany would lose the war.
4. Persuade Turkey to join the war on the side of Germany.
One distinguished American Historian has called the Germans, “…the most professionally skillful army of modern times.”Max Hastings, Overlord ©1984

     B.   Forces Available
Men: 1.9 million
Tanks: 5000
Artillery: 31,000
Aircraft: 3000

Men: 780,000
Tanks: 3000
Artillery: 7400
Aircraft: 2100

NOTE: These numbers are for the German offensive, July 5-17.  If one adds in the Soviet counter-offensive, these total numbers increase significantly

     C.   Tiger Terror and the “Myth” of Prokhorovka

1. “Death Ride” of the Panzers?
2. Every Tank a Tiger? (only 15 available at height of the battle)
3. The 5-to-1 Rule
4. The “Biggest” Tank Battle in History?
5. The Michael Licari Essay

“When we was in the bocage we were assaulted by them Tigers.  You know what I mean by assaulted?  I mean assaulted!”Moriarty, Kelly’s Heroes

      D.  Personalities of Note

1. Lt. Michael Wittmann
     Tiger Tank Platoon Leader in the 1st SS Panzergrenadier Division  He is credited with destroying over 37 T34 Tanks and 47 anti-tank guns at Kursk. By the time of his death, in August of 1944, his “kills” will total 138 tanks.

2. Lt. Aleksandra Samuenko
T34 Tank Platoon Leader in the 1st Guards Tank Army  She is credited with destroying 3 Tiger tanks during the Kursk battles  and is awarded the Order of the Red Star.  She died on March 3, 1945 from wounds received in battle 70 Km east of Berlin.  She was 23 years old.


3. Cpt. Hans-Ulrich Rudel
Flying a Ju87 Stuka Dive Bomber equipped with twin 37mm  anti-tank guns, Rudel is credited with killing 12 T34 tanks on his first day.  By war’s end his total will include 519 Soviet tanks, 1 Battleship, 1 Cruiser, 1 Destroyer, and nearly 1000 other vehicles of various types.  Rudel died in 1982.       

4. Lt. Antonina Lebedeva
Credited with over 1500 flying hours, 3 air battles and 12 combat missions, Lebedeva was shot down twice and destroyed one German Me-109 fighter.  On July 17, during an evening combat mission her plane went missing and she was listed as KIA.  Her body was discovered in 1982 by school children.

5. Lt. Eric Hartmann
On July 7, during the fierce areal battles above Kursk, Hartman destroyed seven Soviet fighters.  By the war’s end Hartmann would be the most successful fighter pilot in history with over 352 Allied aircraft shot down while having never been shot down himself.


E.   The Results – By the Numbers

1. Losses - Manpower
KIA: 70,330
WIA: 107,517
MIA: 34,000

KIA: 9,036
WIA: 43,159
MIA: 1,960

2. Losses – Material
Aircraft: 459

Tanks: 323
Aircraft: 159

     F.   Outcome – Political & Military
        1. Could the Germans have won at Kursk?
    2. Who lost the battle – Hitler or his Generals?
    3. Was Kursk the “Turning Point” of the War?


“I have done my utmost to let the events speak for themselves, and if any conclusion was reached, it was that there are no simple lessons in history, that it is human nature that repeats itself, not history.  We often learn more about the past from the present, in fact, than the reverse.”
-- John Toland from the introduction to his book The Rising Sun-The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-45

III. Wacht am Rhein – The Battle of the Bulge

         A. Objectives – Why Attack Here & Now?
                  1. The element of Surprise
                  2. The “Quiet Sector”
                  3. Split the Allies
                  4. Take the port of Antwerp
                  5. Force a Truce in the West
                  6. Free up units for the Eastern Front

         B. Forces Available
                  1. Germans
                  Manpower: 450,000
                  Tanks & Assault Guns: 1224
                  AFV: 1500

                  2. United States
                  Manpower: 700,000
                  Tanks & Assault Guns: 4,380
                  AFV: 7,800

Note: Time was the real enemy of the Germans and as each day passed Allied strength increased while German strength decreased.  These numbers represent totals at the height of unit commitment to the battlefield.  For example, at the time of the initial German assault on December 16th:

German forces available:
Men: 406,000
Tanks & Assault Guns: 1,224

Allied forces available:
Men: 228,741
Tanks & Assault Guns: 3,329


         C. Caught by Surprise

1.    Initial German Success
2.    Operation Greif
3.    Those Damned Engineers
4.    “Nuts!” -- Bastogne and the 101st Airborne
5.    Kampfgruppe Peiper and the Crossroads of Death

          D. Personalities of Note

1. LTC. Otto Skorzeny
Known as “Hitler’s Commando” Skorzeny carried out several special operations, most notably the rescue of Mussolini in July 1943.  For the Ardennes Offensive he was in charge of Operation Greif. After the war he lived in Spain and actually worked as a Mossad agent.

 2. LTC Joachim Peiper
 Fluent in several languages (including French and English) he served as Himmler’s aide before becoming a panzer commander of some renowned.  At the Bulge his unit, Kampfgruppe Peiper, committed some of the worst battlefield atrocities of the war.  Sentenced to death, Peiper was released in 1956.  After the war Peiper lived in France, translating books on military history.  He was murdered, on July 14, 1976.

3. PFC Kurt Vonnegut
Serving as an Infantry Scout with the 106th Infantry Division,  Vonnegut was captured on December 22 and sent to a POW camp in Dresden, Germany.  He survived the firebombing of the city (February 13--15, 1945).  His experiences formed the basis for his book, Slaughter House Five, considered by many to be one of the great American novels.

4. Cpl. Mel Brooks
Served as a Combat Engineer with the 78th Infantry Division. The Combat Engineers were vital in slowing the German advance in the first week of the battle.  After the war Brooks became a successful comedian and film director. 

“This is undoubtedly the greatest American battle of the war and will, I believe, be regarded as an ever famous American victory.”
-- Winston Churchill, House of Commons, January 22, 1945

              E.   The Results – By the Numbers

         1. Losses -- Manpower  
         KIA: 15,652
         WIA: 41,600
         MIA: 29.183

         KIA: 20,876
         WIA: 42,893
         MIA: 23,662
         2. Losses – Material
         Tanks & Assault Guns: 600
         Aircraft: 800

         Tanks & Assault Guns: 800     
         Aircraft: 647

              F.   Outcome – Political & Military
         1. Could the Germans have won?
         2. Who lost the battle – Hitler or his Generals?
         3. What if…
                  a. The Germans had launched this attack on the Eastern Front?
                  b. The Germans had used these forces for defense only?

IV. Sources / Further Reading


The Battle Of Kursk by David M Glantz & Jonathon M House, ©1999
Exhaustively researched and well written, this is the very best book on the battle.

Citadel – The Battle Of Kursk by Robin Cross, ©1993

Operation Citadel by Janusz Piekalkiewics, ©1987

Kursk-- The Greatest Tank Battle by M.K. Barbier, ©2002

Kursk 1943 – The Tide Turns In The East by Mark Healy, ©1993

Waffen-SS Kursk 1943 Volumes 1-6 by Remy Spezzano, ©2002
Incredible collection of photographs covering Waffen-SS operations at Kursk. 

Tiger I On The Eastern Front by Jean Restayn, ©1999

Tigers At The Front – A Photo Study by Thomas L Jentz, ©2001

Tiger Tanks by Michael Green, ©1995

Tiger Ace – The Story of Michael Wittmann by Gary L Simpson, ©1994

Battle of the Bulge

A Time For Trumpets – The Untold Story of The Bulge by Charles MacDonald, ©1985

Ardennes 1944 – The Battle Of The Bulge by Antony Beevor, ©2015

Snow & Steel – The Battle Of The Bulge by Peter Caddwick-Adams, ©2015

Battle Of The Bulge - Hitler’s Ardennes Offensive 1944-1945 by Danny S Parker, ©1991

Hitler’s Last Gamble – The Battle Of The Bulge by Trevor N Dupuy, David L Bongard and Richard C Anderson, ©1994

Engineering The Victory – The Battle Of The Bulge by Colonel David Pergrin, ©1996

The Bitter Woods by John S.D. Eisenhower, ©1969

Battle Of The Bulge – The First 24 Hours by David Jordon, ©2003

Nuts! – The Battle Of The Bulge by Donald M Goldstein, Katherine V Dillon and J Michael Wenger, ©1994

Ardennes – The Secret War by Charles Whiting, ©1984

Armageddon – The Battle For Germany 1944 –1945 by Max Hastings, ©2004

The Battle Of The Bulge – Hitler’s Last Hope by Robin Cross, ©2002

Ardennes 1944: Peiper & Skorzeny by Jean-Paul Pallud, ©1987

Ardennes 1944 - Hitler’s Last Gamble In The West by James R Arnold, ©1990

The Malmedy Massacre by John M Bauserman, ©1995

Massacre At Malmedy by Charles Whiting, ©1973

A Peculiar Crusade – Willis M Everett and the Malmedy Massacre by James J Weingartner, ©2000

On-Line Resources / Videos of Interest

Book review of Armor & Blood by Dennis E Showwalter,  The Daily Beast

Tank Encyclopedia On-Line resource about Tanks and AFV’s

Web site for the Tank Museum at Bovington, UK.  They have a working Tiger tank, among other AFV’s.

War History On-Line web site

Essays on the Ardennes Offensive and on the Malmaedy Massacre Trial

Survey & Review of books about the Battle of Kursk

Videos of Interest on YouTube

Tiger Vs. Sherman

Tiger Day at Bovington Tank Museum

US Army 1943 Training Film, “Crack That Tank”

Documentary on the Tiger Tank

Documentary on the Panther Tank

US Army Signal Corps 1945 Newsreel on The Battle of the Bulge using captured German film footage.

The Tiger II (King Tiger)

 M4E8 Sherman

Final Thoughts

 “The military makes demands which few if any other callings do, and of course emotionally disturbed people talk about being trained to kill… The whole essence of being a soldier is not to slay but to be slain.  You offer yourself up to be slain, rather than setting yourself up as a slayer.  Now one can get into very deep water here, but there’s food for thought in it.”
-- General Sir John Hackett, War The Lethal Custom, ©1985 & 2004, p129.


“Politicians may … pretend that the soldier is ethically in no different position than any other professional.  He is.  He serves under an unlimited liability, and it is the unlimited liability which lends dignity to the military profession … There’s also the fact that military action is group action, particularly in armies … The success of armies depends to a very high degree on the coherence of the group, and the coherence of the group depends on the degree of trust and confidence of its members in each other.

Now what Arnold Toynbee used to call the military virtues – fortitude, endurance, loyalty, courage, and so on – these are good qualities in any collection of men and enrich the society in which they are prominent.  But in the military society, they are functional necessities, which is something quite, quite different.  I mean a man can be false, fleeting, perjured, in every way corrupt, and be a brilliant mathematician, or one of the world’s greatest painters.  But there’s one thing he can’t be, and that is a good soldier, sailor, or airman.  Now it’s this group coherence and the unlimited liability which, between them, set the military professional apart, and I think will continue to do so.”
--General Sir John Hackett, War ©1985, p140.

Wednesday, July 22, 2015

Hollywood Time Machine -- The Outer Limits

Hollywood Time Machine – The Outer Limits

Time travel has been a staple of Science Fiction from the very beginning, and indeed from even before there was Science Fiction (Mark Twain’s A Connecticut Yankee In King Arthur’s Court).  As with many other themes in Science Fiction, it was H.G. Wells who first set the pattern that has been followed by writers and filmmakers alike ever since.  (War Of The Worlds for alien invasions, The Time Machine for time travel, and The Island Of Dr. Moreau for science gone horribly wrong.)

Rod Taylor as H.G. Wells in the 1960 film The Time Machine

Hollywood has embraced time travel with gusto and even a cursory examination of IMDB reveals several hundred feature films and TV series, or episodes, that deal in some way with time travel or time manipulation.  Sometimes time travel takes center stage and is the focus of the story, while in other films it is simply a plot device to get “the fish out of water” and set the plot into motion. 

Often, the struggle in a time travel story is to avoid changing the time line or, having done so inadvertently, trying to put time back onto the original trajectory.  H.G. Wells avoided this issue by sending his protagonist far into the future, however most films delight in going back in time and upsetting the time line.  In some films the hero is trying to stop the villain who is attempting to change the past for his own nefarious ends, though more often than not the hero has taken a seemingly innocuous action that has significant, even disastrous, ramifications.  The most famous of this latter story arc is the Back To The Future film trilogy. 

Marty McFly, in an act of understandable human nature, saves his future father from being hit by an automobile.  However, in saving his father he altered the time line.  That alteration becomes worse in the sequel when the villain, Biff Tannen, discovers the time machine and decides to improve his unhappy lot in life by altering his past.  Once again Marty and Doc Brown work to correct the time line, but it is not until they go even further back in time that they can finally set things to right, almost…

Although Doc Brown and Marty try their best to restore the time line to its original course, their corrections carry with them more distortions.  Back To The Future I-III


There is a theory that views time as a river, and while you might, through your time travel adventures or misadventures, cause ripples in the flow of time, like tossing pebbles or even large rocks into the river, the time current is so strong that it will correct itself and continue to flow on the path it has always followed.  You cannot, in fact, change the time line. 

Perhaps the most humorous take on changing the time line, both by accident and on purpose, was the Simpsons episode, Time And Punishment.  After trying desperately, and failing miserably, to avoid changing the time line, Homer begins changing it with abandon until he returns to a future, much like Marty McFly, that while not exactly the one he left, is close enough for him.

Another theme, sometimes coupled with time travel, is the teleportation of matter.  This concept is perhaps best know from the Star Trek TV series where the Transporter was used because the producers needed to get their characters to/from a planet but did not have the special effects budget necessary for landing the ship every episode.  Occasionally, having a limited budget can result in very imaginative solutions.

Although the new 3D scanners/printers are demonstrating a very simple and rudimentary form of matter transmission, they are a far cry from the transporters used on Star Trek.  These printers are actually more akin to the Tesla transporter, used to great effect, in the film The Prestige, where the original was not transported at all, but an exact duplicate was created at another location. 

David Bowie, as Nikola Tesla, invents a device which can teleport matter to any location, but at a cost, in The Prestige.

Not surprisingly, both time travel and matter teleportation are themes that were explored on the seminal TV series, The Outer Limits.

The Outer Limits – 1963 – 1965   Two Seasons, 49 Episodes

Seven episodes deal either with Time Travel or Time Manipulation.

Season 1
Ep5     The Sixth Finger
Ep6     The Man Who Was Never Born
Ep16   Controlled Experiment
Ep32   The Form Of Things Unknown

Season 2
Ep1     Soldier
Ep5     Demon With A Glass Hand
Ep16   The Premonition

One episode from Season 1 (Ep15 The Mice) deals with the teleportation of matter, the original goal of the students in Geeks In Time, while another (Season 2 Ep3 Behold Eck!) features a tear in the space-time continuum.

 It is indicative of Hollywood’s love affair with time travel that of the 49 episodes of this very influential series, more than 10% of them involve time travel in one form or another.  Two of the episodes star David McCallum as the time traveler while another two were written by Harlan Ellison. These two episodes in particular, Soldier and Demon With A Glass Hand directly inspired the film Terminator, so much so in fact that when Ellison pointed out these similarities he received a monetary settlement from the filmmakers and a title card, giving Ellison story credit, was added to the film.

 The Sixth Finger
Starring David McCallum, sporting make-up by Stan Chambers,
who would go on to receive an Academy Award for his work on
Planet Of The Apes.  McCallum travels forward in time genetically
while remaining physically in the present.

The Man Who Was Never Born
Featuring Martin Landau trying to change his bleak present
by altering the past.

Controlled Experiment
Written as a pilot for a proposed Sci-Fi comedy series, a pair of alien
anthropologists use their technology to manipulate time allowing
them to study more closely the human act of murder.

The Form Of Things Unknown
David McCallum, once again a time traveler, uses his discovery
to bring the dead back to life.  The results are not always as intended.

Written by Harlan Ellison, two soldiers from the distant future
are caught in a time warp and whisked back to 1960’s America
where they continue their battle.

Demon With A Glass Hand 
Also written by Harlan Ellison, alien invaders, seeking to complete
their conquest of Earth, travel into the past to capture the one man
who knows where the entire population of Earth is hiding. 

The Premonition 
An Air Force test pilot and his wife become ‘unstuck in time’ and must
find a way to not only rejoin the time line but also save the life of their daughter
who is destined to die unless the parents can alter the time line.

The Outer Limits is still considered one of the most influential television series ever broadcast.